Applying the “public safety” exception to the Miranda requirements

December 7, 2012 by Marshall A. Mintz · Leave a Comment 

In United States v. Ferguson, 11-3806 (2d Cir. Dec. 6, 2012), the Court held that the “public safety” exception to the Miranda requirements applied when a police officer has reason to believe that a person may have left a firearm in a public place – thus permitting the officer to interrogate that person an hour or more after arrest.

In New York v. Quarles, 467 U.S. 649 (1984), the Supreme Court explained that “overriding considerations of public safety [may] justify [an] officer’s failure to provide Miranda warnings before he ask[s] questions devoted to  locating [an] abandoned weapon.” Later, in United States v. Estrada, 430 F.3d 606 (2d Cir. 2005), the Second Circuit looked to three factors in making that determination: (1) whether the questioning related to an objectively reasonable need to protect the police or public from an immediate danger, (2) whether an objected observer would believe the questioning was a subterfuge meant to elicit evidence from a suspect, and (3) that the questions were not routinely asked to arrested suspects but instead showed an intent to protect against a perceived danger.

The officer who interrogated Ferguson had previously heard he possessed a firearm and the 911 call reported that a firearm had been fired. But no weapon was recovered when Ferguson was arrested and the officer’s questions were “rationally related to the objective of securing public safety by locating the gun.” Thus, the Court found, the interrogation was within the scope of Estrada.

While recognizing that the passage of time between an arrest and an interrogation may “diminish the immediacy of threat posed by an unaccounted-for firearm,” the Court ultimately concluded that, in this case, it “did not diminish the officers’ objectively reasonable need to protect the public from the realistic possibility that Ferguson had hidden his gun in public, creating an imminent threat to public safety.”

Tattoos Can Be Testimonial Communications Under the Fifth Amendment

February 4, 2011 by Marshall A. Mintz · Leave a Comment 

In United States v. Greer, 09-4362-cr, decided February 4, 2011, the Second Circuit held that evidence about a tattoo on Greer’s arm was “testimonial” because it was introduced at trial to show that Greer had a relationship with a person and not just for purposes of identification.

Greer was arrested after police found ammunition in a car they believed Greer had been driving. The car contained documents with Greer’s name on them but had been rented by someone named Tangela. At the time of his arrest, police noted that Greer had the name Tangela tattooed on his arm. At trial, the government had the arresting officer describe Greer’s appearance at the time of arrest – including what Greer’s tattoos said.

Because the government relied on the content of the tattoo to prove a fact, the evidence was “testimonial.” Further because the evidence linked the defendant to the automobile (and the ammunition that was inside of it), it was also incriminating. Thus, its introduction implicated Greer’s Fifth Amendment right against self incrimination.

However, because the tattoo was not compelled by the government, there was no Fifth Amendment violation.