Boarding a Plane Establishes Venue for Conspiracy to Commit Fraud, Not Substantive Offense

In United States v. Tzolov, 2011 WL 2342629 (2d Cir. June 15, 2007), the Court rejected the government’s argument that venue for a securities fraud prosecution was proper in the Eastern District of New York solely because the defendants traveled through JFK airport on the way to meet with investors. Because all of the fraudulent statements were made elsewhere, the act of boarding a plane was merely a preparatory act and not part of the substantive offense.

However, the Court also found that venue was proper for two counts of conspiring to commit securities fraud. Because the travel allowed the defendants to make false statements to investors in person, the flights were overt acts in furtherance of those conspiracies.